Maulik considered the species Oxycephala longissima , O. Gressitt gave a full synonymy for the species. Several physiological races occur, as evaluated by hospitality to the parasite Tetrastichus brontispae Mo, Takano et al. Eggs The brown eggs are elliptical, about 1.
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Larvae and adults feed on unopened fronds chewing narrow lines parallel to the midrib causing the leaf to look striped French Notes Behavioural notes : The beetles are nocturnal and fly well. They always live in the still-folded leaflets and move outside only to infest the nearby palms or for mating. Lifecycle Stages Eggs are laid in the still-folded leaflets of both young and mature coconut palms.
The eggs are surrounded by debris and excrement, and laid longitudinally in rows of an excavated area of leaf tissue. They in hatch between three to seven days. In two to five days they hatch to feed as larvae on the unopened leaves.
In 36 days they form pupae which open 6 days later. The whole cycle from egg to adult occupies about five to seven weeks in Java and Sulawesi, but can extend to nine weeks in other presumably cooler places Kalshoven , Lever , in FAO Habitat Description Temperatures between 24 and 28 deg;C are favourable for the growth of the beetle Yihai et al.
Young palms less than four years old are particularly attractive to the beetle and at greater risk of infestation; the young leaves of older trees are firmer and less suitable as breeding habitats FOA Reproduction The female on average lays eggs in the course of several weeks Kalshoven , in FAO , which produce 40 larvae.
Nutrition Hispid beetles Brontispa longissima are palmivorous insects Creighton , Lever , in He et al. The larvae and adults are mostly found in the partly opened young leaflets of palms. Both adult and larvae typically feed on the epidermis and parenchyma of the leaves removing strips of tissues from the leaflets and destroying the growing points of the palms Fenne , Howard et al.
Pathway Lack of strict quarantine on the movement of palms particularly ornamentals is considered as a major factor in the spread of B.
It is suspected that this pest was accidentally introduced into Vietnam, the Maldives and the Philippines with shipments of ornamentals. The beetle can travel long distances by various means of transportation Jian The spread of B.
Brontispa longissima. Full account PDF. Common name. Brontispa reicherti Brontispa simmondsi Oxycephala longipennis Oxycephala longissima Brontispa castanea Brontispa froggatti Brontispa longissima , var. Javana Brontispa longissima , var. The Hispid palm leaf beetle attacks palm leaf fronds as the name suggests especially those of the coconut tree. It is an introduced pest in many islands in the Pacific Ocean and also some nations of the Pacific Rim including Taiwan.
Its impact on tropical and subtropical cropping systems can be severe. Species Description. Descriptions vary. A small orange and black beetle; 10 mm long by 4 mm wide. The head and antennae are black and a small part of the wing cover is yellow-brown. The remainder of the wing cover is black French The adult beetle is reddish brown in colour and is about 7.
Eggs are wide brown and measure 1. For an illustration please see: Gressitt : page Behavioural notes : The beetles are nocturnal and fly well. Eggs are laid in the still-folded leaflets of both young and mature coconut palms. Temperatures between 24 and 28 deg;C are favourable for the growth of the beetle Yihai et al. The female on average lays eggs in the course of several weeks Kalshoven , in FAO , which produce 40 larvae.
Hispid beetles Brontispa longissima are palmivorous insects Creighton , Lever , in He et al. Lack of strict quarantine on the movement of palms particularly ornamentals is considered as a major factor in the spread of B. General Impacts. Host range : Up to 36 species in 26 genus have been recorded as host plants for the coconut hispid beetle; these include APFSIN Undated : Coconut Cocos nucifera most favored host ; Royal palm Roystonea regia ; Alexandra palm Archontophoenix alexandrae ; Sago palm Metroxylon sagu ; California fan palm Washingtonia filifera ; Mexican fan palm Washingtonia robusta ; Bottle palm Hyophorbe lagenicaulis ; Chinese fan palm Livistonia chinensis ; Madagascar palm Chrysalidocarpus lutescens ; and Areca nut palm betel palm Areca catechu.
Direct damage : Seedlings, mature coconut trees and ornamental palms are all affected; however, palms up to five years old are at the greatest risk of infestation by the coconut hispid beetle ASEAN IPM ; PestNet The coconut beetle attacks unopened young fronds; as the spear unfurls the beetle moves on to other palms or the next emerging spear; it does not attack leaves that are already emerged. Beetle larvae chew large areas of the leaflets killing underlying tissues and reducing leaf photosynthesis; photosynthesis may be reduced to zero in the case of multiple beetle attacks.
Infested palms are more susceptible to drought and diseases such as fungal rot PestNet Severe infestations may result in the complete defoliation of the palm Lu et al. Economic impacts : Agricultural: Coconut Cocos nucifera , oil palm Elaeis spp. And ornamental palms are all affected by the coconut hispid beetle and are all important industry crops. Coconut industries are at risk of reduced yields due to beetle infestations. South East Asia and the Pacific are particularly affected. Where the coconut hispid beetle has been left unchecked coconut processing factories have been shut down, thousands of workers have been let off and farmers have been left without work Bernama Tourist industry: Idyllic tropical island landscapes dotted with tall palm trees are an essential pull-factor employed to entice people to travel to South East Asia and the Pacific.
Browning and dying palms degrade these landscapes, are unmarketable and have negative consequences for the tourism industry and the people whose livelihoods depend on tourism. The natural environment and its use for recreational activities is also spoiled for local people and residents. Please follow this link for more information on the management and impacts of the coconut hispid beetle. Preventative measures : Prohibition of the movement of host palm seedlings including ornamental palms and potential habitat material, including palm produce eg: coconut leaves, items made from palm fibers is necessary to prevent spread of the beetle pest to new areas.
The use of check points, emergency legislation and emergency measures are all useful management tools. This might include cutting down infested palms and hanging insecticide bags on palms up to three kms from the area of infestation.
Raising awareness among stakeholders and the general public and training programs are important for the ongoing monitoring of beetle presence and to increase awareness of the risks involved in shifting palms and palm products. Phytosanitary measures in plantations and nurseries should also be encouraged.
Inspection and monitoring : Adult beetles, larvae and eggs are all located inside the tightly folded leaves young heart leaves in the throat of the palm; these leaves should be targeted during inspection. Symptoms of infestation by B. Injured leaves of coconut seedlings show large, dead patches resulting from the coalescing of feeding strips; the leaves finally tear leaving a ragged appearance He et al. Please follow this link for detailed information on the management and impacts of the coconut hispid beetle.
Countries or multi-country features with distribution records for Brontispa longissima. Informations on Brontispa longissima has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Details of Brontispa longissima in information. Management notes for this location. Start date:. Ecosystem services:. Tahiti Is. Viet Nam Vietnam. Management information. American Samoa. Australia Darwin Queensland. China Hainan. Sulawesi Is.
Ari Atoll Fenfushi Hulhule Is. New Caledonia Nouvelle Caldonie. Rota Is. Saipan Is. Papua New Guinea. Catbalogan Manila Philippines. Solomon Islands. The feasibility of the controlling coconut leaf beetle Brontispa longissima with introducing natural enemies Asecodes hispinarum , Chinese Bulletin of Entomology42 3 : Summary: Abstract: The new invaded pest insect Brontispa longissima Gestro has been spread to 11 counties of Hainan Province since it was found in HaiKou in It may diffuse into the higher latitudinal provinces according to the latitude, climate, and host distribution analyses.
It directly affected the development of agriculture, forestry, and travel industry. Analysis the ecological condition of Hainan Province and the character of B. We suggested that introducing natural enemies is a good method to control the pest. Summary: Abstract: Asecodes hispinarum Boucek, an important larval endoparasitoid of Brontispa longissima Gestro , was introduced into Hainan Province of China from Vietnam in March, The morphology, development, reproduction and reproductive potential of this wasp parasitoid were studied.
Both the temperature and nutritional supplement affected the longevity of adults, and the mean longevity of female adults was longer than that of male adults. Fecundity per female was 43 on average and the peak of oviposition occurred within 12 hours after mating. The functional response of A. Summary: Abstract: Tetrastichus brontispae Ferri re, an important endoparasitoid of the coconut leaf beetle Brontispa longissima Gestro at pupal stage, was introduced into Hainan from Taiwan in
Larvae and adults feed on unopened fronds chewing narrow lines parallel to the midrib causing the leaf to look striped French Notes Behavioural notes : The beetles are nocturnal and fly well. They always live in the still-folded leaflets and move outside only to infest the nearby palms or for mating. Lifecycle Stages Eggs are laid in the still-folded leaflets of both young and mature coconut palms. The eggs are surrounded by debris and excrement, and laid longitudinally in rows of an excavated area of leaf tissue.
List of symptoms / signs
Brontispa longissima known as the coconut leaf beetle , the two-coloured coconut leaf beetle , or the coconut hispine beetle is a leaf beetle that feeds on young leaves and damages seedlings and mature coconut palms. It has become an increasingly serious pest of coconuts throughout various growing regions in the Pacific, especially over the last 3 decades,  including Indonesia , Solomon Islands , Vietnam , Nauru , Cambodia , Laos , Thailand , Maldives , Myanmar , Hainan Island , and Aru Islands , and most recently, the Philippines. Control measures include pesticides , and biological control agents such as parasitic wasps e. There is a similar-looking pest species of leaf beetle in a related genus, Plesispa reichei , also sometimes referred to as the "coconut leaf beetle", which is distinguished only with some difficulty from B. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.