It is notably often the first type of bipolar transistor hobbyists encounter and is often featured in designs in hobby electronics magazines where a general-purpose transistor is required. The BC is supplied in a standard TO 3-pin package. The assignment of transistor elements b,c,e to leads, i. As viewed in the top-right image, going from left to right, the pinout is as follows:.
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Note: Complete Technical Details can be found at the BC transistor datasheet give at the end of this page. BC is a NPN transistor so the collector and emitter will be left open Reverse biased when the base pin is held at ground and will be closed Forward biased when a signal is provided to base pin. BC has a gain value of to , this value determines the amplification capacity of the transistor. The maximum amount of current that could flow through the Collector pin is mA, hence we cannot connect loads that consume more than mA using this transistor.
To bias a transistor we have to supply current to base pin, this current I B should be limited to 5mA. When this transistor is fully biased, it can allow a maximum of mA to flow across the collector and emitter.
When base current is removed the transistor becomes fully off, this stage is called as the Cut-off Region and the Base Emitter voltage could be around mV. When a transistor is used as a switch it is operated in the Saturation and Cut-Off Region as explained above. As discussed a transistor will act as an Open switch during Forward Bias and as a closed switch during Reverse Bias, this biasing can be achieved by supplying the required amount of current to the base pin.
As mentioned the biasing current should be maximum of 5mA. Anything more than 5mA will kill the Transistor; hence a resistor is always added in series with base pin to limit the current. The value of this resistor R B can be calculated using below formula. The value of I B should not exceed 5mA. A Transistors acts as an Amplifier when operating in Active Region.
It can amplify power, voltage and current at different configurations. Of the above types common emitter type is the popular and mostly used configuration. When used as an Amplifier the DC current gain of the Transistor can be calculated by using the below formulae.
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