COURS SUR LES MULTIVIBRATEURS PDF

Voici sa formule de calcul. Le signal subit ce qu'on appelle une distorsion. Mais laissons cela pour plus tard. La raison est que la tension de sortie ne peut pas augmenter soudainement et met un certain temps avant d'atteindre la valeur voulue. Autant le pas en tenir compte dans les calculs et la supposer nulle. Cela veut dire que la tension de sortie sature entre la tension d'alimentation et son inverse.

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Effective date : Kind code of ref document : B1. Ref document number : Country of ref document : DE. Date of ref document : Ref country code : BE. Payment date : Year of fee payment : Ref country code : NL. Owner name : SOC. Ref country code : GB. Ref country code : FR. Ref country code : DE. Ref legal event code : ST. This receiver is contained within a housing 9 whose front or front panel 1 is accessible to the user free of roughness, of recesses or projections notable and has an opaque appearance when the receiver is turned off.

The front wall is achieved by means of a plate 3 of a plastic material transparent tinted. It comprises four sensitive zones 5, 6, 7 and which are performed par. The present invention relates to radio broadcasting receivers, that is to say of broadcast electromagnetic wave receivers, the modulated transmission by a sound or audio-frequency signal amplitude or frequency, in particular the arrangement of their devices control.

It relates more particularly to so-called receptors "radio", particularly those intended for incorporation in motor vehicles, so-called "car radio", and their control devices, devoid of any mechanical component.

In receivers "radio" and "car radio" conventional, the control devices comprise, in particular, a switch "on-off" which is either coupled to the axis controlling the adjustment potentiometer of the volume, which must be turned, is controlled by a push button, a potentiometer volume control spindle rotating or rectilinear translation, an element of reagent agreement of the radio-frequency resonant circuits and the local oscillator comprising a plurality of simultaneous variable reactances such as capacitors multiple agreement, be on the same axis or inductors cores axially movable control mechanically coupled, and switches rotary wavebands at push buttons or keys.

All these elements, and the tuning indicator with the dial, are usually mechanically operated and those with rotary axes are manipulated by the user by means of rotary knobs protruding from the front front side facing this one.

As regards the receivers intended to be mounted on board motor vehicles with commands to remain accessible to the driver, is typically contained in a housing which can be inserted into an opening in the dashboard, for example. Furthermore, the turning control knobs, buttons and indicators make the station the presence of a conventional car radio easily identifiable to potential thieves.

The invention overcomes the disadvantages listed above, using controls and static indication, fully electronic, replacing items requiring mechanical transmission between the outside and inside of the housing. The invention relates to a radio receiver for motor vehicle control devices entirely free of mechanical elements. According to the invention, this receiver controller is arranged such that its front or front accesible to the user is free of protrusions, recesses or significant asperities, and when the receiver is stopped, this facade has a substantially smooth appearance and opaque.

To this end, the exterior and a predetermined plate thickness, made of a transparent insulating material that is colored on the one hand, to ensure opacity, when the receiver is stopped, and on the other hand, to mitigate the light signal lamps that illuminate from within, when the receiver was switched on. On its side facing the interior of the receiver housing, the plate has a plurality of said sensitive areas respectively covered with layers of conductive material and insulated from each other to respectively form the control buttons by proximity effect capacitive, which are activated by the combination of a body part of the user, such as a hand or a finger, for example, and which are known per se see GB-a In one embodiment of this control device, known per se cf.

DE-A-2,, , the conductive layer of each key is connected to the one terminal of the feedback winding of an oscillator transistor whose collector is connected to a parallel resonant circuit and which begins to oscillate, when a body part of the user is capacitively coupled to said layer, sufficiently.

The wave supplied by the oscillator is transmitted through a rectifier circuit to at least one flip-flop such as, for example, the transition corresponding to the startup of the control oscillator tilting of the -ci in a predetermined state, provided that it has previously been in a complementary state to tfernier. For certain keys, the rectangular signal provided by the rectifier during the oscillation of the oscillator, due to prolonged presence of a user's finger to its proximity, is applied to at least one logic gate of coincidence the type "aND" or "NAND" or for passing recurrent pulse from a clock incorporated or to close a feedback circuit of an astable multivibrator generating other recurring pulses during the period of this signal.

In Figure 1, there is shown at 1 the front panel or front face of the receiver "car radio" which is intended to be mounted on the dashboard of a motor vehicle such that it is substantially flush with the surface of the table or, optionally, placed in a shallow cavity thereof.

In this embodiment it is surrounded by a rectangular frame 2 which serves to retain the panel 1 in place, e. The rear of the frame 2 is secured to the circumference of the metal casing of parallelepipedal shape not shown of the receiver.

It may be advantageous to provide the frame 2 of a plastic material having some elasticity to allow the relatively easy removal of the cover 1, which by reading the front face not shown of the receiver housing, obscured by it, permits replacement all signal lamps and lighting incandescantes when they become defective.

The fascia 1 is the front face of a rigid rectangular plate 3 in a tinted insulating material, that is to say, in plastic material resin which is transparent mixed dye of a relatively dark hue. This allows, on the one hand, reduce the light from the lamps above to avoid interference or dazzle the driver and secondly, to make it an opaque appearance, hardly distinguishable from its environment, when lighted only from the outside.

The transparent material used is preferably an acrylic resin such as polymethyl methacrylate. In the lower right corner, the front one can be marked with the manufacturer or distributor 4 which can be obtained, for example, by metallization or painting the front or the back of the tinted plate. In the second case it must be illuminated from behind to become visible. In Figure 1, there is shown in dotted four sensitive keys or proximity effect or capacitive coupling zones, respectively designated by 5, 6, 7 and 8.

At the location of these sensitive areas , the thickness of the plate 3 must be reduced by recesses cavities formed preferably in its rear face and, possibly, in its front face or both, either during the casting or molding of the part or thereafter, by machining.

The four zones or sensitive keys recessed shown are substantially square in shape and arranged equidistantly along an axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of the rectangular plate 3.

They may also be rectangular or elliptical circular , or any other geometric shape. These letters and symbols indicate functions stop, search, reducing or increasing the volume that each key command Metallic surfaces are isolated from one another.

When the metallization is transparent, areas that are not intended to be illuminated by transparency can be covered with a layer of opaque paint. In this case, it is possible to illuminate the sensitive area in its entirety and symbol or letter indicating the function can be opaque. Figure 2 in perspective shows the parallelepiped housing 9 containing the receiving and control circuits, whose front face is covered with a rectangular plate 3 according to a second embodiment of the invention.

It can be advantageous to provide a removable metal cover 10 to allow access to the electronics for their eventual breakdown. The plate 3 is provided on its upper part of its front face with two display areas 10 and 11 superposed and respectively provided with gradations vertical lines and aligned numbers, and at the end of each line thereof, the indication units MHz and kHz relating to these numbers.

The side opposite to that of the units, each display area includes a designation of the waveband received GO and FM.

These indications gradations, numbers and letters can be displayed by contrast with their surroundings, some being opaque and the other transparent and colored or vice versa.

The two display areas 10 and 11 are delimited inside by opaque projections so that they are illuminated alternately in the waveband received. These light emitting diodes are only available in certain colors, so it is best to choose the same color for the coloring of 3 colored plate so as not to attenuate the light emitted by them.

In one corner superior of the plate 3 here on the left , it is possible to represent with a double display of seven segments 13, identification symbols of some large transmitting stations. The plate 3 can be secured to the anterior periphery of the housing 9 by bonding, for example.

In this case, the front face of the latter which carries the socket of lighting and signaling lamps, the linear light-emitting diode ramp 12 and dual display 13 is integral with the frame not shown which must be excerpt from behind.

The electrical connections between the metallized areas keys and the electronic circuits carried by the frame can then be performed using any contact in the form of leaf springs. Figure 3 is a simplified block diagram of the fully electronic control device receiving "car radio", according to the invention. In this device, each of the sensitive keys proximity effect 5, 6, 7 and 8 is connected to the control input of an oscillator 15, 16, 17 and 18, the first 15 is shown schematically.

The receiver comprises a positive supply terminal 19 which is joined to the positive pole of a battery B whose negative pole is connected to the vehicle metallic frame, constituting the mass.

This positive supply terminal 19 is connected through a resistor 20 to the positive supply input of the oscillator 15, the latter being joined to the negative power supply input connected to ground by means of a capacitor 21 forming with the resistor 20 a decoupling circuit. The oscillator of the positive power input 15 is joined, moreover, by means of a parallel of a resistor assembly and a capacitor , to the emitter of a bipolar transistor of the PNP type and through a resistor to the base thereof.

This base is joined, moreover, through a resistor to the input of negative power supply of the oscillator 15, which also met the collector of transistor through a parallel resonant circuit composed an inductor and a capacitor The resistors and connected in series between the positive and negative power supply inputs of the oscillator 15, bias the base of the PNP transistor such that it is continuously conductive.

Button 5 being well isolated from the rest of the circuit, the coil does not provide current to the base of transistor This frequency is, for example, selected from the range of ultrasonic frequencies.

This oscillation continues until the body part moves far enough away from the key 5. The output of the oscillator 15 is connected to the input of a rectifier circuit 25 comprising a diode whose anode constitutes the input and the cathode 'the output of the assembly This cathode is further connected to earth by means of an assembly consisting of a resistor and a capacitor connected in parallel, the time constant RC is chosen greater than three times the period of the wave supplied by the oscillator The output of detector assembly 25 is connected to the input of a first inverter stage 22 in hardwired logic, that is to say composed of discrete elements.

This task is met by means of a series resistor to the base of a bipolar transistor of NPN type whose emitter is connected to ground. This resistor serves to limit the base current of this transistor and, thus, the load connected to the terminals of the LC resonant circuit of the oscillator 15 during the positive half-periods of the oscillation.

It is sometimes advantageous to connect a capacitor between the base and the emitter of transistor , which has the effect of further increasing the rise time and fall of the pulses of which it delays, in addition, the leading and trailing edges. The collector of transistor which constitutes the output of this inverter stage 22, is met by means of a resistor to the positive output of an integrated voltage regulator 24 whose positive input is connected to the positive supply terminal 19 of the receiver.

The input and negative output of this controller 24 are both connected to ground. It should be noted here that the voltage regulator 24, the input and the positive output are further respectively decoupled to ground by means of two capacitors 29 and 30 is for supplying the whole electronic control device of the receiver with the exception of oscillators 15 to 18, the power switch and its control stage transistors.

Its input voltage as that of the battery B 12V , the output voltage is selected, in particular, for the integrated logic circuits supply for example, 5V fitted to the control device. The power switch is constituted by the transistor 35 which should be able to drive in the saturated state of a high current and the resistor 34 which is at the same time the resistance polarization -the base of transistor 35 and the transistor collector resistor 32, forms with the latter the control stage of the switch.

When the rocker "JK" 31 is in the high state or "an" , its Q output provides substantially the output voltage of the regulator 24 which feeds it, so that the control transistor 32 is saturated, and therefore, the switch transistor 35 is blocked.

When the hand or finger of the user then approaches the first sensitive area 5, the oscillator 15 starts oscillating and the rectifier 25 provides a positive rectangular signal causing saturation of the transistor of the inverter stage 22 whose collector then provides the clock input T of the rocker "JK" 31 a low state or "zero". With the loopback respective outputs Q and Q to the inputs J and K, the latter respectively received during the high state previously applied to the input T, a low state and a high state.

The transition between the high state and the low state of input T tilts the rocker 31 in its low or zero state appearing at the Q output , which causes the blocking of the control transistor 32 so that the switch transistor 35 polarized on its base through the resistor 34 becomes saturated and the receiver is some lamps light, including illuminating the sensitive keys Other sensitive keys 6, 7 and 8 are also respectively connected to the inputs for controlling other associated oscillators 16, 17 and 18 similar to the first 15, the outputs of which respectively supply the rectifier circuits 26, 27 and 28, also similar to the first It is noted here that the fully electronic control device may be equipped with other types of activated control circuits by capacitive effect keys, known, provided that they provide positive rectangular signal of period corresponding to that of activation of the associated key.

In an improved embodiment of the invention, the outputs of the other fixtures rectifiers are respectively connected to three inputs of an "OR" circuit cable 37 comprising three LEDs 38, 39 and 40 whose cathodes connected together form the exit. This output of the "OR" circuit 37 is joined to the base of a bipolar PNP transistor 41 through a resistor This base is further connected to earth via a further resistor When no other sensitive keys 6, 7, and 8 is activated by the proximity of a body part of the user, the transistor 41 is saturated because its base is joined to its collector via the resistor If the amplitude of the wave provided by one or more of other oscillators is such that the rectangular signal provided by one of the other fixtures rectifiers exceeds the regulated voltage provided by the regulator 24 multiplied by the reciprocal of the division ratio of the voltage divider formed by resistors 42 and 43 in series, the transistor 41 becomes blocked and the input reset R temporarily receives a high state.

This is a rectangular signal applied to the input R which causes the reset to the zero state of the rocker 31, if it was not there before. As before, the zero state on the Q output causes blocking of the transistor 32 and the saturation of the transistor This arrangement including the "OR" circuit 37, the transistors 41 and resistors 42 to 44, used to control the setting of the receiver road by activating any sensitive button or more of them and then control the desired function channel search, change the volume, switching range by activating the appropriate key which are then all made visible through the backlighting.

When the rocker '' JK''31 is in zero state which controls the supply of the receiver via the output terminal 36 of the control device in Figure 3, the activation of the first touch sensitive 5 designated by the symbol "A" means "stop", causes surrender to high. During the above-mentioned zero state, the J input connected to the complementary output Q and the clock input T connected to the junction of the resistor with the collector of transistor respectively receive high states.

Activation of the "A" button 5 causes the oscillation of the oscillator 15 and supplied to the output of the rectifier circuit 25 of a positive rectangular signal of the saturation control transistor The clock input T is then temporarily connected to ground and controls the tilting of the rocker 31 in its high state which in turn causes the saturation of the driving transistor 32 and the blocking of the switching transistor

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