Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the publisher. This course was designed for mathematics majors at the junior level, although three- fourths of the students were drawn from other scientific and technological disciplines and ranged from freshmen through graduate students. This description of the M. The ten years since the first edition have seen the proliferation of linear algebra courses throughout the country and have afforded one of the authors the opportunity to teach the basic material to a variety of groups at Brandeis University, Washington Univer- sity St.

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This banner text can have markup. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the publisher. This course was designed for mathematics majors at the junior level, although three- fourths of the students were drawn from other scientific and technological disciplines and ranged from freshmen through graduate students.

This description of the M. The ten years since the first edition have seen the proliferation of linear algebra courses throughout the country and have afforded one of the authors the opportunity to teach the basic material to a variety of groups at Brandeis University, Washington Univer- sity St.

Louis , and the University of California Irvine. Our principal aim in revising Linear Algebra has been to increase the variety of courses which can easily be taught from it. On one hand, we have structured the chapters, especially the more difficult ones, so that there are several natural stop- ping points along the way, allowing the instructor in a one-quarter or one-semester course to exercise a considerable amount of choice in the subject matter.

On the other hand, we have increased the amount of material in the text, so that it can be used for a rather comprehensive one-year course in linear algebra and even as a reference book for mathematicians. The major changes have been in our treatments of canonical forms and inner product spaces. In Chapter 6 we no longer begin with the general spatial theory which underlies the theory of canonical forms. We first handle characteristic values in relation to triangulation and diagonalization theorems and then build our way up to the general theory.

We have split Chapter 8 so that the basic material on inner product spaces and unitary diagonalization is followed by a Chapter 9 which treats sesqui-linear forms and the more sophisticated properties of normal opera- tors, including normal operators on real inner product spaces. We have also made a number of small changes and improvements from the first edition. But the basic philosophy behind the text is unchanged. We have made no particular concession to the fact that the majority of the students may not be primarily interested in mathematics.

For we believe a mathe- matics course should not give science, engineering, or social science students a hodgepodge of techniques, but should provide them with an understanding of basic mathematical concepts. For this reason, we have avoided the introduction of too many abstract ideas at the very beginning of the book.

In addition, we have included an Appendix which presents such basic ideas as set, function, and equivalence relation.

We have found it most profitable not to dwell on these ideas independently, but to advise the students to read the Appendix when these ideas arise. Throughout the book we have included a great variety of examples of the important concepts which occur. The study of such examples is of fundamental importance and tends to minimize the number of students who can repeat defini- tion, theorem, proof in logical order without grasping the meaning of the abstract concepts.

The book also contains a wide variety of graded exercises about six hundred , ranging from routine applications to ones which will extend the very best students. These exercises are intended to be an important part of the text. Chapter 1 deals with systems of linear equations and their solution by means of elementary row operations on matrices.

It has been our practice to spend about six lectures on this material. It provides the student with some picture of the origins of linear algebra and with the computational technique necessary to under- stand examples of the more abstract ideas occurring in the later chapters. Chap- ter 2 deals with vector spaces, subspaces, bases, and dimension. Chapter 3 treats linear transformations, their algebra, their representation by matrices, as well as isomorphism, linear functionals, and dual spaces.

Chapter 4 defines the algebra of polynomials over a field, the ideals in that algebra, and the prime factorization of a polynomial. Chapter 5 develops determinants of square matrices, the deter- minant being viewed as an alternating n-linear function of the rows of a matrix, and then proceeds to multilinear functions on modules as well as the Grassman ring. The material on modules places the concept of determinant in a wider and more comprehensive setting than is usually found in elementary textbooks.

Chapters 6 and 7 contain a discussion of the concepts which are basic to the analysis of a single linear transformation on a finite-dimensional vector space; the analysis of charac- teristic eigen values, triangulable and diagonalizable transformations; the con- cepts of the diagonalizable and nilpotent parts of a more general transformation, and the rational and Jordan canonical forms.

The primary and cyclic decomposition theorems play a central role, the latter being arrived at through the study of admissible subspaces. Chapter 7 includes a discussion of matrices over a polynomial domain, the computation of invariant factors and elementary divisors of a matrix, and the development of the Smith canonical form.

The chapter ends with a dis- cussion of semi-simple operators, to round out the analysis of a single operator. Chapter 8 treats finite-dimensional inner product spaces in some detail. The chapter treats unitary operators and culminates in the diagonalization of self-adjoint and normal operators. Chapter 9 introduces sesqui-linear forms, relates them to positive and self-adjoint operators on an inner product space, moves on to the spectral theory of normal operators and then to more sophisticated results concerning normal operators on real or complex inner product spaces.

Chapter 10 discusses bilinear forms, emphasizing canonical forms for symmetric and skew-symmetric forms, as well as groups preserving non-degenerate forms, especially the orthogonal, unitary, pseudo-orthogonal and Lorentz groups. We feel that any course which uses this text should cover Chapters 1, 2, and 3 Preface v thoroughly, possibly excluding Sections 3. Chapters 4 and 5, on polynomials and determinants, may be treated with varying degrees of thoroughness.

In fact, polynomial ideals and basic properties of determinants may be covered quite sketchily without serious damage to the flow of the logic in the text; however, our inclination is to deal with these chapters carefully except the results on modules , because the material illustrates so well the basic ideas of linear algebra. An ele- mentary course may now be concluded nicely with the first four sections of Chap- ter 6, together with the new Chapter 8.

If the rational and Jordan forms are to be included, a more extensive coverage of Chapter 6 is necessary. Judith Bowers, Mrs. In addition, we would like to thank the many students and colleagues whose per- ceptive comments led to this revision, and the staff of Prentice-Hall for their patience in dealing with two authors caught in the throes of academic administra- tion.

Lastly, special thanks are due to Mrs. Sophia Koulouras for both her skill and her tireless efforts in typing the revised manuscript. Contents Chapter 1. Chapter 2. Chapter 3. Linear Equations 1 1. Fields 1 1. Systems of Linear Equations 3 1. Matrices and Elementary Row Operations 6 1. Row-Reduced Echelon Matrices 11 1. Matrix Multiplication 16 1. Invertible Matrices 21 Vector Spaces 28 2. Vector Spaces 28 2. Subspaces 34 2. Bases and Dimension 40 2. Coordinates 49 2. Summary of Row-Equivalence 55 2.

Computations Concerning Subspaces 58 Linear Transformations 67 3. Linear Transformations 67 3. The Algebra of Linear Transformations 74 3. Isomorphism 84 3. Representation of Transformations by Matrices 86 3. Linear Functionals 97 3.

The Double Dual 3. Polynomials 4. Algebras 4. The Algebra of Polynomials 4. Lagrange Interpolation 4. Polynomial Ideals 4. The Prime Factorization of a Polynomial Chapter 5. Determinants 5. Commutative Rings 5. Determinant Functions 5. Permutations and the Uniqueness of Determinants 5.

Additional Properties of Determinants 5. Modules 5. Multilinear Functions 5. The Grassman Ring Chapter 6. Elementary Canonical Forms 6.

Introduction 6. Characteristic Values 6. Annihilating Polynomials 6. Invariant Subspaces 6. Simultaneous Triangulation; Simultaneous Diagonalization 6. Direct-Sum Decompositions 6. Invariant Direct Sums 6. The Primary Decomposition Theorem Chapter 7. The Rational and Jordan Forms 7. Cyclic Subspaces and Annihilators 7. Cyclic Decompositions and the Rational Form 7.

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