Proiectul de Lege pentru modificarea Codului penal al Republicii Moldova nr. Anexa 1. Anexa 2. Anexa 3. Popa Ludmila , consultant principal. Cristina Melnic , tel.
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Homeopathy is fairly common in some countries while being uncommon in others. In some countries, there are no specific legal regulations concerning the use of homeopathy, while in others, licenses or degrees in conventional medicine from accredited universities are required. Homeopathic preparations are not effective for treating any condition. Regulations vary in Europe depending on the country. In Austria and Germany, no specific regulations exist, while France and Denmark mandate licenses to diagnose any illness or dispense of any product whose purpose is to treat any illness.
In other countries, such as Belgium and the Czech Republic, homeopathy is not covered. In Austria, public insurance requires scientific proof of effectiveness in order to reimburse medical treatments, but exceptions are made for homeopathy. In June , the Swiss Government, after a 5-year trial, withdrew insurance coverage for homeopathy and four other alternative treatments, stating that they did not meet efficacy and cost-effectiveness criteria.
However, following the result of a referendum in the five therapies were reinstated for a further 6-year trial period from In , the Council of the European Communities stated in the preamble to its directive that homeopathy was officially recognized in certain member states but only tolerated in others. In any case it was prescribed and used in all member states. Other homeopathic products can still be registered under the normal rules, and products such as Arnica D1 are legally available.
The labels of homeopathic products registered without proof of efficacy must include the words "homeopathic medicinal product without approved therapeutic indications" as well as "a warning advising the user to consult a doctor if the symptoms persist during the use of the medicinal product".
She advised against reimbursement by the compulsory health insurance and advised that only doctors would be allowed to practice homeopathy. Homeopathy is the most popular form of alternative medicine in France. Nevertheless, in July the French ministry of health announced to no longer reimburse homeopathic medicines starting from as they are deemed to "not provide sufficient public health benefits". Homeopathic remedies are subject to registration, but they need not be tested.
However, homeopathic remedies that are less diluted than D4, or for which a danger of adverse effects exists, cannot be registered under this rule. Germany is the only member state of the EU in which homeopathic remedies based on minerals or plants, and produced only in very low quantities, do not need to be registered. In other member states only remedies individually prepared in a pharmacy are exempt. In , homeopathic remedies accounted for 2.
A survey of more than 70, citizens showed that approximately 4. Homeopathy use rose from 2. Romania follows the general practices of EU regarding homeopathy. Approval of homeopathic drugs was simplified, considering there is no need for excessive testing for most of them. In , the Collegiate Medical Organization of Spain published a report in which it rejected homeopathy and other non-scientific medical practices;  this report changed the organization's previous position, dating from , when it had approved the recognition of homeopathy as a "medical procedure".
The change was prompted by the activity of the Association to Protect the Sick from Pseudoscientific Therapies, which, among other actions, has produced a European manifesto for the change of laws that protect the sale of homeopathy in Europe.
In , a judge from Spain dismissed a lawsuit for slander that a group of homeopaths had filed against two critics of homeopathy Fernando Cervera and Aurelio Duque. It was the first time that a Spanish court ruled against homeopathy. In September , after the National Board of Health and Welfare put a doctor on probation for recommending homeopathy to a patient, Sweden's Supreme Administrative Court ruled that "doctors can recommend homeopathy".
While the practice of homeopathy in the United Kingdom UK is not regulated by law,  homeopathic products sold as remedies or medicines are regulated by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. In the United Kingdom , homeopathy in the public health sector has steadily decline over recent years. In there were approximately 2, homeopaths, who are not GPs, registered with various organisations.
Around , UK universities began to close or review their courses on homeopathy and alternative medicine, after accusations that they were teaching pseudoscience. It also concludes that the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency MHRA should not allow homeopathic product labels to make medical claims without evidence of efficacy.
As they are not medicines, homeopathic products should no longer be licensed by the MHRA. Since the NHS Constitution explicitly gives people the right to expect that decisions on the funding of drugs and treatments are made 'following a proper consideration of the evidence', patients may reasonably form the [misleading] view [inferred from the fact of any NHS financial support] that homeopathy is an evidence-based treatment. In June , the British Medical Association voted three to one in favour of a motion that homeopathy should be banned from the NHS, and kept from being sold as medicine in pharmacies.
In July , the Advertising Standards Authority concluded that homeopathy sellers were engaging in false advertising regarding their claims of efficacy of homeopathic products and that at the same time they discouraged users from seeking essential treatments for conditions for which they were needed. State insurance funding of homeopathy and four other alternative therapies had been withdrawn after a review in , and a referendum vote called for state backed health insurance to once more pay for these therapies.
In the government reinstated them for a trial period until , pending an independent investigation of the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the therapies. The rules for the registration of homeopathic remedies without a concrete field of application are more liberal in Switzerland than they are in member countries of the EU.
For homeopathic medicines based on well-known low-risk substances, Swissmedic , the regulatory authority, offers inexpensive registration by means of a simplified electronic registration procedure. Homeopathy is not effective for treating any health condition, Australia's top body for medical research has concluded, after undertaking an extensive review of existing studies.
According to one study, approximately 4. Provincial health care generally does not cover homeopathy. The finished Act thus created loopholes for the regulation of homeopathic drugs, and they are thus exempted from many of the rules regulating other drugs. The last bound paper edition of HPUS was published in Many homeopathic drugs can be sold "over-the-counter"; however, some are classified as prescription-only under all circumstances, and some are classified as prescription-only in various low dilutions.
As with all drugs, the labeling requirements are important, as that is one of the primary ways the FDA can regulate drugs. Homeopathic pharmaceutical techniques are not technologically complicated, and the drugs are generally considered to be biologically safe because they are so diluted to the point where there are no molecules from the original solution left in a dose of the final remedy.
The FDA makes significant exemptions for homeopathic remedies as compared to other drugs. Here are a few: . In , there were 93 regular schools, 14 of them were fully homeopathic and 8 of them were eclectic. In , there were regular schools, with 22 of them being homeopathic and 10 eclectic.
The last purely homeopathic medical school closed in , although homeopathic electives continued to be offered by the Hahnemann Medical School in Philadelphia until the s. According to one study, in , 0. According to the same study, of those who used homeopathy, The FDA held a hearing April 20 and 21, , requesting public comment on regulation of homeopathic drugs. On 15 November , FTC declared that homeopathic products cannot include claims of effectiveness without "competent and reliable scientific evidence.
In Mexico , homeopathy is currently integrated into the national healthcare system. In , a presidential decree by Gral. Some countries in South America , such as Argentina  or Colombia ,  allow only professional doctors who are qualified and have graduated from a recognised medical school to practice homeopathy. Homeopathy has been regulated in other South American countries, such as Colombia ,  since the beginning of the 20th century.
In Brazil , homeopathy is included in the national health system, and since , physicians who want to practice homeopathy must complete 2, hours of education prior to receiving the proper licenses. India has the largest homeopathic infrastructure in the world, with low estimates at about 64,, but going as high as , practising homeopaths. In addition, there are colleges teaching courses, and government clinics and hospitals which dispense homeopathic remedies.
Asiatic countries many times were exposed to both homeopathic and non-homeopathic ideas about medicine through invading armies that had ties to Europe. The French army brought early modern medicine to Laos during their invasion. In China, Shanghai had one homeopathic hospital in , and had four later in Both medical doctors and lay practitioners can practise homeopathy but they all should pass MOH exams which cover both medical science and homeopathy.
The Iranian Homeopathic Association, formed with the permission of the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Health, is the reference association for providing standards of homeopathy. In Iran only medical doctors can practice homeopathy. Homoeopathy came to India in early , with travelers, missionaries and military personnel from the West.
In in the state of Uttar Pradesh population million in there were 27, registered homeopathic practitioners compared with 38, medical doctors referred to as allopaths by those practicing alternative medicine , and 59, ayurvedic and 14, unani practitioners. Registration is a legal requirement and under South African Law it is a criminal offense to practice homeopathy without registration.
Homoeopathic registration in South Africa enjoys a standing, rights and privileges similar to that of conventional medical practitioners. This means that the legal scope of practice of a homeopathic practitioner is very similar to that of a conventional medical practitioner. The scope of practice includes also what would generally be applicable to Naturopathic practitioners in countries like the USA.
A Homeopathic Practitioner may diagnose, in fact being a diagnostic primary health care profession, a Homeopathic Practitioner is legally compelled to make a diagnosis and provide the appropriate ICD diagnostic codes. Homeopathic Practitioners also have to be licensed to compound Homeopathic medicine and to dispense any medicine falling within their scope of practice.
Both conventional pharmacology and Homoeopharmaceutics are a legal training requirement. Training therefore is based upon the medical curriculum with Homoeopathy as the primary therapeutic focus. From this perspective it is understandable that as for Medical Practitioners where the requirement for registration is a MBChB or equivalent in the case of Homeopathy the requirement for registration is a master's degree in Homeopathy MTech Hom or equivalent.
Homoeopathic practitioners are trained diagnosticians, recognised as primary contact practitioners. Whereas the vast majority of international Homoeopathic schools offer skills-oriented Homoeopathic training, South Africa offers professional training at a level required for the practising of Homoeopathy as a primary contact health profession in accordance with the scope of practice of such a profession.
Tech Hom consists of a five-year full-time medico-scientific course based on the medical curriculum with the core focus on classical, clinical, modern and conventional Homoeopathy, Homoeopharmaceutics and ending with a masters research dissertation. Graduates are registered as Homoeopathic practitioners only after having completed their post-graduate internship.
The practice of Homeopathy in South Africa requires medical training as prerequisite. Two routes thus exist for entrance into Homeopathy, either via the medically based homeopathic master's degree course MTech-Hom or once a medical practitioner is registered for independent practice, by way of the Post Graduate Diploma in Homeopathy offered by the South African Faculty of Homoeopathy SAFH. Once registered, homeopathic practitioners may do the prescribed Compounding and Dispensing course through the University of Pretoria and thereafter apply for a License to Compound and Dispense Homeopathic Medicine  from the National Department of Health.
The Medicines Control Council was set up in , and it put all types of medicine under the same standards. It was replaced in by the South African Medicines and Medical Devices Regulatory Authority, which placed separate procedures for registering regular and alternative medicines, in order to regulate them better. Both medically qualified practitioners and lay persons can practice homeopathy, with the Congress of Homoeopathic Medicine Practitioners having 30 medical doctors on its register in Okogeri, began practice the following year.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: NHS homeopathic hospitals. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Healthcare and Biomedical Technology in the 21st Century.
Regulation and prevalence of homeopathy
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