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Skip to Content. This is called the stage. You will also discover what prognostic factors help doctors predict how well treatment will work. Use the menu to see other pages. Staging helps to describe where the Hodgkin lymphoma is located, if or where it has spread, and whether it is affecting other parts of the body.
There are different stage descriptions for different types of cancer. Whether the cancerous lymph nodes are localized or generalized. Localized means they are located only in 1 area of the body. Generalized means they are in many areas of the body. Whether the cancerous lymph nodes are on 1 or both sides of the diaphragm, the thin muscle under the lungs and heart that separates the chest from the abdomen.
The stage of lymphoma describes the extent of the spread of the tumor, using the terms "stage I" to "stage IV" 1 through 4. Stage I: The cancer is found in 1 lymph node region. Stage II: The cancer is in 2 or more lymph node regions on the same side of the diaphragm. Stage IIE: The cancer involves 1 organ and its regional lymph nodes lymph nodes located near the site of the lymphoma , with or without cancer in other lymph node regions on the same side of the diaphragm.
The mass is either larger than one-third the diameter of the chest or larger than 10 centimeters cm. A centimeter is roughly equal to the width of a standard pen or pencil. Stage III: There is cancer in lymph node areas on both sides of the diaphragm, meaning above and below it. Stage IV: The lymphoma has spread to 1 or more organs beyond the lymph nodes. Hodgkin lymphoma usually spreads to the liver, bone marrow, or lungs. Recurrent: Recurrent lymphoma is lymphoma that has come back after treatment.
Lymphoma may return in the area where it first started or in another part of the body. Recurrence may occur at any time, including shortly after the first treatment or years later. If the lymphoma does return, there will be another round of tests to learn about the extent of the recurrence. These tests and scans are often similar to those done at the time of the original diagnosis.
In addition to stage, doctors use other prognostic factors to help plan the best treatment and predict how well this treatment will work. For people with Hodgkin lymphoma, several factors can predict whether the disease will return and which treatments will be successful.
The lymphoma may be described as "high-risk disease" or "low-risk disease" based on how many of the following prognostic factors there are. White blood cell count that is more than 15, per cubic millimeter mm 3.
Other prognostic factors that are considered, especially for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, include:. A higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate, or ESR see "Laboratory tests" in Diagnosis , is associated with a poorer prognosis. People with lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma, and lymphocyte-rich classic Hodgkin lymphoma have a better prognosis, compared with other types of Hodgkin lymphoma.
A mediastinal lymph node mass, located in the center of the chest, that is larger than 10 cm is associated with a poorer prognosis. Small mediastinal masses are not associated with a poorer prognosis. The next section in this guide is Treatment Options. Use the menu to choose a different section to read in this guide.
Lymphoma - Hodgkin: Stages Approved by the Cancer. When staging Hodgkin lymphoma, doctors evaluate the following: The number of cancerous lymph node areas. Lymphoma stage groupings The stage of lymphoma describes the extent of the spread of the tumor, using the terms "stage I" to "stage IV" 1 through 4. Stage II: Any of the following conditions applies: Stage II: The cancer is in 2 or more lymph node regions on the same side of the diaphragm.
Prognostic factors In addition to stage, doctors use other prognostic factors to help plan the best treatment and predict how well this treatment will work. Factors that are considered less favorable and lead to a poorer prognosis include: Being male. Age 45 and older. Low hemoglobin red blood cell count , defined as less than Stage IV disease. Other prognostic factors that are considered, especially for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, include: A higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate, or ESR see "Laboratory tests" in Diagnosis , is associated with a poorer prognosis.
Having a high number of involved lymph node sites is associated with a poorer prognosis. Types of Cancer. Lymphoma - Hodgkin Guide. Net Guide Lymphoma - Hodgkin. Medical Illustrations. Risk Factors. Symptoms and Signs. Types of Treatment. About Clinical Trials. Latest Research. Coping with Treatment. Late Effects of Treatment. Follow-Up Care. Questions to Ask the Health Care Team.
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Back to Health A to Z. Hodgkin lymphoma is an uncommon cancer that develops in the lymphatic system, which is a network of vessels and glands spread throughout your body. The lymphatic system is part of your immune system. Clear fluid called lymph flows through the lymphatic vessels and contains infection-fighting white blood cells, known as lymphocytes. In Hodgkin lymphoma, B-lymphocytes a particular type of lymphocyte start to multiply in an abnormal way and begin to collect in certain parts of the lymphatic system, such as the lymph nodes glands.
Skip to Content. This is the first page of Cancer. Use the menu to see other pages. Think of that menu as a roadmap for this complete guide. The lymphatic system is made up of lymph nodes, lymphatic organs, and lymphatic vessels. Its job is to fight infection and disease. The lymphatic system carries lymph, a colorless fluid that contains lymphocytes.
What Is Hodgkin Lymphoma?
Your body's lymphatic system is part of your immune system, which protects you against infection and disease. The lymphatic system includes your spleen, thymus, lymph nodes and lymph channels, as well as your tonsils and adenoids. Lymph nodes are bean-sized collections of lymphocytes. About of these nodes cluster throughout the lymphatic system, for example, near the knee, groin, neck and armpits.