In this study, the results of a research aimed at analyzing the effects on the academic development of students utilizing a system designed by the authors to provide course materials and mentoring services based on the learning styles of students, called Intelligent Electronic Mentoring System AKEDAS , is presented. AKEDAS, using expert systems- derived and rule-based knowledge presentation and artificial intelligence support, identifies the student, performs needs analysis, and automatically provides the types ofthe necessary teaching materials and the guidance necessary to meet the learning requirements. In this way, AKEDAS presents learning content that conforms to the students learning style and the individuals cognitive knowledge level. If the system does not generate a solution or if the student requests support from a mentor, the mentor enters the loop. The research has been conducted in experimental scientificmanner, and the pre-test scores of the experiment and control groups have been observed to avoid meaningful differences. The experiment and control groups have displayed a homogeneous distribution at the start of the exercise.
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Abstract This study investigates the relation between secondary school administrators transformational and transac- tional leadership style and skills to diversity management in the school, based on branch teachers perceptions. The relational survey method was used in the study. The sample for the study was comprised of teachers public school teachers from 34 different schools in the city of Siirt during the academic year of In the research, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire scale was used to determine the leadership styles of school administrators and Questionnaire for Diversity Management scale was used to indicate the degree of behavior related to diversity management.
In the result of research it was determined that there was a positive and mod- erate relationship between school administrators transformational leadership style and skills to management diversity. This study it was found that there was a positive and moderate relationship between all dimensions of transformational leadership and contingent reward sub-dimension of transactional leadership and admin- istrative practices and policies sub-dimension of diversity management, and between intellectual stimulation and individual support sub-dimensions of transformational leadership and contingent reward sub-dimension of transactional leadership and individual attitudes and behaviors, organizational values and norms dimensions of diversity management.
It was also found that there was a negative and weak relationship between manage- ment by exception passive and laissez-faire leadership dimensions of transactional leadership and individual attitudes and behaviors, administrative practices and policies sub-dimensions of diversity management, and between management by exception of transactional leadership passive and organizational values and norms sub-dimension of diversity management.
Findings of study reveals that practices, such as individual attitudes and behaviors, managerial practices and politics associated with individualized consideration, dimension of transformational leaders and contingent, dimension of transactional leadership were significantly predictors of management skills diversity in schools.
Furthermore practices of dimensions of transformational leadership, individualized consideration, idealized stimulation and of dimensions of transactional leadership, contingent re- ward significantly predictor dimensions of management diversity in schools in respect to organizational values and norms. Quality in education, strategic plan- ning, leadership, organizational commitment and mobbing are among the subjects he studies on. Email: veysel.
Budak, One of the keys for the organizations requirement for continuity of the organizational to continue their existence in the changing world structure. Therefore, transformational leadership is to show awareness and respect to the diversity reflects the most effective and required leadership among employees and to regard this diversity as styles Bege, According to Bass , richness.
In this respect, diversity management is transformational leaders pay attention to the one of the new approaches required Memduholu, potentials and needs of their employees in order a. The employees who gather in order to achieve to develop the capacity of others. These leaders organizational goals such as performance, profitability, provide environments where individual differences productivity and efficiency, on the one hand, try to are respected.
Transformational leaders encourage adapt to their colleagues and organization, and on interaction and attach importance to the individual the other, desire to live freely with their differences interests of employees as cited in Steward, The goal is to change in organizations and work environments create a positive work environment for all employees Morrison et al. The studies on the and organization. Balay Leaders are the persons who can achieve this.
One of the In this sense, school administrators are responsible most significant elements of effective schools is of changing and consolidating the understanding school administrators and their leadership styles.
In order to carry out successful a management approach, other than traditional education and training activities, both teachers management approaches, which embraces and administrators need to acknowledge these everyone in the organization.
Administrators with differences and to develop appropriate methods to leadership characteristics are expected to be aware manage the situation Sharma, The fact that of differences, free of prejudices, to be educated and schools adopt such management understanding conciliatory and to lead the cultural change in work which cares differences and focuses on learning environments Morrison et al. In todays from differences contributes to both the individual world where great changes occur, new values rise development of students and the general success of and the future cannot be predicted, leaders who can schools Gle, Transformational leader is a Tiryaki, ; Toksa, ; Yeil, Idealized impact study dealing with the relationship between the is the process through which the leader creates a leadership styles of administrators in our country mission and vision together with his employees and diversity management in schools.
Motivating with explored whether there is a relationship between suggestion is the process through which the leader the leadership styles of school administrators creates a powerful common feeling of purpose and diversity management in schools.
Thus, it with his inferiors using simple emotional elements is aimed that both application efforts in schools Karip, Team spirit is activated Bass, , and the literature will be contributed given that p. Intellectual warning expresses developing diversity which is considered as a source of the intellect, being reasonable and careful in solving richness especially in our country can be evaluated the problems elik, ; Karip, Individual through the leadership behaviors of administrators.
Bateman, , p. There is an efficient exchange transaction between the employees, which is Transformational Leadership and Transactional comprised of three dimensions: Conditional Leadership reward, management with exceptions and laissez- Bass suggested a new model in relation to faire approach elik, ; Karip, ; Stordeur leadership based on certain leadership studies.
This et al. In the conditional reward dimension, suggested model is comprised of two dimensions: the leader determines the tasks and targets for Transformational and transactional leadership.
Employees know the rewards they Transformational leadership is defined as a move will be granted when they fulfill the targets. In the. Diversity targets, determine and correct the problematic management regards the differences among areas. The diversity management approach maximizes the potential advantages of diversity while Diversity Management offering practical solutions for the organizations Diversity management is a management understanding to minimize the potential disadvantages Mollica, which has been emphasized often especially after the However, this understanding is not easy to s.
Literally, Diversity means difference, variety and put into practice. An organizational culture which unlikeness. Diversity represents the multitude of individual potential negative consequences of diversity in differences and similarities that exist between people those values Memduholu, ; ncer, According to this definition, It is pointed out that a number of changes are diversity is a mixture, a mosaic that incorporates every required in the organizational structure of such a person, differences and similarities that exist between management understanding and to achieve this, it people as well as their characteristics, processes, systems is essential to create an organizational culture that and variety in the global conditions to which the corresponds to diversity management Barutugil, organization should respond Srgevil, This understanding Memduholu , p.
Moreover, the leader should mental skills, knowledge and abilities etc. Diversity process. Besides, intra-organizational and non- management provides an environment where organizational social value systems should be everyone can contribute to the organization and understood and common aspects of these systems show all their performance toward the goals of should be sought.
The leader should also be able to the organization Budak, , p. According ensure transfer of powers within the organization to Von Bergen et al. Therefore the employees. The aim is to establish a positive it is said that such a management approach that work environment for the improvement of all gives importance to diversity and is based on employees and the organization. Individuals coming learning from diversities will contribute to both the together to realize the organizational objectives students individual development and the overall including performance, profitability, efficiency success of the school Gle, Relationship between Transformational and etc.
School Managers having a sense of leadership are expected Diversities management should direct individuals to be aware of diversities, away from prejudices, who have different opinions, qualities and educated and mediator and lead cultural shift understandings into the same purpose and in organizations and workplace environments motivate them towards achieving the goals of Morrison et al. For the achievement of the organization Aksu, That education successful management of diversities, diversities institutions, having workers who possess many should be a part of organization policy and strategy differences such as culture, belief, lifestyle, status, and have equal importance with other policies and socio-economic position, etc.
In this sense, it can is something natural and expected. Therefore, be stated that a sense of leadership responsive to diversities management is one of the most diversities is a facilitating factor of the process.
Transformational Walt, Unless these diversities are managed leadership is defined as a leadership behavior in effectively within organizations, it is inevitable that which moral values are considered important. Today, diversity management based moral expectancies and humanistic behaviors on consolidation and cohesion policies are applied of both the leader and the workers thus having a within organizations rather than assimilation transformational effect on both sides Celep, , policy in solving problems arising from diversities pp.
Jung, Yammarino, and Lee school culture adding value to the school Ngema, state that main feature that makes transformational , p. School managers awareness of all leadership from other leadership styles is that it aspects of diversities will help people understand emphasizes personal values that workers adopt and each other better, free from prejudices and lessen regard.
According to Sarros, Cooper, and Santora conflicts. In this way, it will lead a stronger social , transformational leader creates awareness adaptation at school Van Der Vuuren et al. Transformational leader is also the leader in order to manage diversities at schools Ngema, of a democratic school society.
Within a democratic , p. In his study Polat emphasizes school culture, diverse necessities, wishes and that school managers have plenty of workers with purposes are met. Everyone constituting the school diversities and that these diversities should be society is given opportunity to be active in decision- managed effectively.
He emphasizes that to manage making. School managers having transformational diversities at school effectively and contribute leadership behaviors regard the diversities at rather than disadvantage the organizational school. In this sense, a positive relationship tolerance, honesty, objectivity, equality, truth, is expected to be between transformational leader.
Valid data was obtained from approximately and norms, managerial policies and applications. In order to Transactional leadership is based on bureaucratic obtain more reliable data a sample questionnaire was authority and organizational legitimacy. There are not developed.
Transactional leader takes variable was analyzed, the number of teachers with the preformation of the task and worker obedience years of service The proportion of teachers with year system.
In short, transactional leader focuses on service was 9. As transactional leadership is one that is based on saving the day, a positive and meaningful relationship among Data Collection Tools effective management of diversities at school may In the research, Bass and Avolios not be expected.
Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire scale Steger and Erwee have found in their study was used to determine the leadership styles of that school managers do not have enough awareness school administrators, Balay and Salams of diversities management. Ngema has Questionnaire for Diversity Management scale identified that managers and workers do not have was used to determine the degree of behavior solid institutional policy for practices made related related to diversity management.
The information to diversities at school and diversities management. In addition to this, he has revealed that there Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire MLQ : is lack of common stakeholder participation in With the aim of determining the leadership styles diversities management and practices.
A research of school administrators, permission for the use related to whether there is a relationship between of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire diversities management at school environment MLQ scale developed by Bass and Avolio and transformational and transactional leadership The questionnaire consisted of 20 items behaviors of school managers has not been found for transformational leadership with five sub- in literature.
In this study, this subject is analyzed. The diversities available at education institutions not Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire was based be seen as a problem, an effective management and on a five-point Likert scale answered as Not at thus to organizational management perceptivity all 0 , Once in a while 1 , Sometimes 2 , Fairly and practices.
In addition, the arithmetic average obtained for each item was evaluated as As a result of the factor The relational survey method is a research model analysis, it was observed that the scale represented which aims at explaining the existence or the level a two-factor structure.
The total variance explained of change between two or more variables Karasar, by the first factor called transformational leadership , p. The explained variance of the second Population and Sampling factor called transactional leadership was The The target population of the study consisted of total variance explained by both dimensions was branch teachers in a total of 34 secondary schools As a result of the reliability analysis, it was under the Ministry of National Education, in the observed that the total correlation coefficient of the.
Among the mostly used fit indices x2, GFI, coefficient of this dimension was found as. Cronbachs alpha reliability coefficient of.
Gaziantep University Abstract In this study, the perceptions related to strategies of conflict management, organizational confidence, organizational justice, organizational commitment and evaluating the manager which are effective on the organizational behavior of teachers are studied. The research is a discretional study in the model of survey. The high-schools in the center of Gaziantep constitute the working group. The sample is formed by teachers.
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