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The works of Rabindranath Tagore consist of poems, novels, short stories, dramas, paintings, drawings, and music that Bengali poet and Brahmo philosopher Rabindranath Tagore created over his lifetime. Tagore's literary reputation is disproportionately influenced very much by regard for his poetry; however, he also wrote novels, essays, short stories, travelogues, dramas, and thousands of songs. Of Tagore's prose, his short stories are perhaps most highly regarded; indeed, he is credited with originating the Bengali-language version of the genre.
His works are frequently noted for their rhythmic, optimistic, and lyrical nature. However, such stories mostly borrow from deceptively simple subject matter — the lives of ordinary people and children.
A story with borderless appeal—gleaning rave reviews in Europe— Dak Ghar dealt with death as, in Tagore's words, "spiritual freedom" from "the world of hoarded wealth and certified creeds". His other works fuse lyrical flow and emotional rhythm into a tight focus on a core idea, a break from prior Bengali drama. Tagore sought "the play of feeling and not of action". In he released what is regarded as his finest drama: Visarjan Sacrifice. The devout Maharaja of Tripura is pitted against the wicked head priest Raghupati.
His latter dramas were more philosophical and allegorical in nature; these included Dak Ghar. Another is Tagore's Chandalika Untouchable Girl , which was modelled on an ancient Buddhist legend describing how Ananda , the Gautama Buddha 's disciple, asks a tribal girl for water.
In Raktakarabi "Red" or "Blood Oleanders" , a kleptocrat king rules over the residents of Yaksha puri. He and his retainers exploit his subjects—who are benumbed by alcohol and numbered like inventory—by forcing them to mine gold for him.
The naive maiden-heroine Nandini rallies her subject-compatriots to defeat the greed of the realm's sardar class—with the morally roused king's belated help. Chitrangada , Chandalika , and Shyama are other key plays that have dance-drama adaptations, which together are known as Rabindra Nritya Natya.
Tagore began his career in short stories in —when he was only sixteen—with " Bhikharini " "The Beggar Woman". This period was among Tagore's most fecund, yielding more than half the stories contained in the three-volume Galpaguchchha or Golpoguchchho ; "Bunch of Stories" , which itself is a collection of eighty-four stories.
Tagore typically associated his earliest stories such as those of the " Sadhana " period with an exuberance of vitality and spontaneity; these characteristics were intimately connected with Tagore's life in the common villages of, among others, Patisar , Shajadpur, and Shilaida while managing the Tagore family's vast landholdings.
In " Kabuliwala ", Tagore speaks in first person as town-dweller and novelist who chances upon the Afghani seller. He attempts to distill the sense of longing felt by those long trapped in the mundane and hardscrabble confines of Indian urban life, giving play to dreams of a different existence in the distant and wild mountains: "There were autumn mornings, the time of year when kings of old went forth to conquest; and I, never stirring from my little corner in Calcutta, would let my mind wander over the whole world.
At the very name of another country, my heart would go out to it I would fall to weaving a network of dreams: the mountains, the glens, the forest Many of the other Galpaguchchha stories were written in Tagore's Sabuj Patra period from to , also named after one of the magazines that Tagore edited and heavily contributed to.
Tagore's Galpaguchchha remains among the most popular fictional works in Bengali literature. Its continuing influence on Bengali art and culture cannot be overstated; to this day, it remains a point of cultural reference, and has furnished subject matter for numerous successful films and theatrical plays, and its characters are among the most well known to Bengalis.
This famous story has an autobiographical element to it, modelled to some extent on the relationship between Tagore and his sister-in-law, Kadambari Devi. Ray has also made memorable films of other stories from Galpaguchchha , including Samapti , Postmaster and Monihara , bundling them together as Teen Kanya "Three Daughters". Atithi is another poignantly lyrical Tagore story which was made into a film of the same name by another noted Indian film director Tapan Sinha.
Tarapada, a young Brahmin boy, catches a boat ride with a village zamindar. It turns out that he has run away from his home and has been wandering around ever since. The zamindar adopts him, and finally arranges a marriage to his own daughter.
The night before the wedding Tarapada runs away again. Strir Patra The letter from the wife was one of the earliest depictions in Bengali literature of bold emancipation of women. Mrinal is the wife of a typical Bengali middle-class man. The letter, written while she is traveling which constitutes the whole story , describes her petty life and struggles. She finally declares that she will not return to her patriarchical home, stating Amio bachbo.
Ei bachlum "And I shall live. Here, I live". In Haimanti , Tagore takes on the institution of Hindu marriage. He describes the dismal lifelessness of Bengali women after they are married off, hypocrisies plaguing the Indian middle class, and how Haimanti, a sensitive young woman, must — due to her sensitiveness and free spirit — sacrifice her life.
In the last passage, Tagore directly attacks the Hindu custom of glorifying Sita 's attempted self-immolation as a means of appeasing her husband Rama 's doubts as depicted in the epic Ramayana. In Musalmanir Golpo , Tagore also examines Hindu- Muslim tensions, which in many ways embodies the essence of Tagore's humanism. On the other hand, Darpaharan exhibits Tagore's self-consciousness, describing a young man harboring literary ambitions.
Though he loves his wife, he wishes to stifle her literary career, deeming it unfeminine. Tagore himself, in his youth, seems to have harbored similar ideas about women.
Darpaharan depicts the final humbling of the man via his acceptance of his wife's talents. Jibito o Mrito , as with many other Tagore stories, provides the Bengalis with one of their more widely used epigrams: Kadombini moriya proman korilo she more nai "Kadombini died, thereby proved that she hadn't".
Among Tagore's works, his novels are among the least-acknowledged. Ghare Baire or The Home and the World , which was also released as the film by Satyajit Ray Ghare Baire , examines rising nationalistic feeling among Indians while warning of its dangers, clearly displaying Tagore's distrust of nationalism — especially when associated with a religious element. In some sense, Gora shares the same theme, raising questions regarding the Indian identity. As with Ghare Baire , matters of self-identity, personal freedom, and religious belief are developed in the context of an involving family story and a love triangle.
Shesher Kobita translated twice, as Last Poem and as Farewell Song is his most lyrical novel, containing as it does poems and rhythmic passages written by the main character a poet. Though his novels remain under-appreciated, they have recently been given new attention through many movie adaptations by such film directors as Satyajit Ray , Tapan Sinha and Tarun Majumdar. The recent among these is a version of Chokher Bali and Noukadubi film directed by Lt. A favorite trope of these directors is to employ rabindra sangeet in the film adaptations' soundtracks.
Tagore was the first person excepting Roosevelt outside Europe to get the Nobel Prize. The time that my journey takes is long and the way of it long. I came out on the chariot of the first gleam of light, and pursued my voyage through the wildernesses of worlds leaving my track on many a star and planet. It is the most distant course that comes nearest to thyself, and that training is the most intricate which leads to the utter simplicity of a tune. The traveller has to knock at every alien door to come to his own, and one has to wander through all the outer worlds to reach the innermost shrine at the end.
My eyes strayed far and wide before I shut them and said 'Here art thou! Tagore's poetic style, which proceeds from a lineage established by 15th- and 16th-century Vaishnava poets, ranges from classical formalism to the comic, visionary, and ecstatic.
He was influenced by the atavistic mysticism of Vyasa and other rishi -authors of the Upanishads , the Bhakti - Sufi mystic Kabir , and Ramprasad Sen. Tagore reacted to the halfhearted uptake of modernist and realist techniques in Bengali literature by writing matching experimental works in the s. He occasionally wrote poems using Shadhu Bhasha , a Sanskritised dialect of Bengali; he later adopted a more popular dialect known as Cholti Bhasha.
The year AD, was the turn of the century in the Bangla calendar. It was the Bangla year Tagore wrote a poem then. In that poem, Tagore was appealing to a new future poet, yet to be born. He urged in that poem to remember Tagore while he was reading it. He addressed it to that unknown poet who was reading it a century later.
The latter was composed and recorded with vocals by Palbasha Siddique to accompany Internet celebrity Matt Harding 's viral video.
The second movement of Jonathan Harvey 's "One Evening" sets an excerpt beginning "As I was watching the sunrise My song has put off her adornments. She has no pride of dress and decoration. Ornaments would mar our union; they would come between thee and me; their jingling would drown thy whispers. My poet's vanity dies in shame before thy sight. O master poet, I have sat down at thy feet. Only let me make my life simple and straight, like a flute of reed for thee to fill with music.
Forgive me my weariness O Lord Should I ever lag behind For this heart that this day trembles so And for this pain, forgive me, forgive me, O Lord For this weakness, forgive me O Lord, If perchance I cast a look behind And in the day's heat and under the burning sun The garland on the platter of offering wilts, For its dull pallor, forgive me, forgive me O Lord. Tagore was a prolific composer, with 2, songs to his credit. His songs are known as rabindrasangit "Tagore Song" , which merges fluidly into his literature, most of which—poems or parts of novels, stories, or plays alike—were lyricised.
Influenced by the thumri style of Hindustani music , they ran the entire gamut of human emotion, ranging from his early dirge-like Brahmo devotional hymns to quasi-erotic compositions. Some songs mimicked a given raga's melody and rhythm faithfully; others newly blended elements of different ragas.
The pathos of the purabi raga reminded Tagore of the evening tears of a lonely widow, while kanara was the confused realization of a nocturnal wanderer who had lost his way.
In bhupali he seemed to hear a voice in the wind saying 'stop and come hither'. Paraj conveyed to him the deep slumber that overtook one at night's end. In , Amar Shonar Bangla became the national anthem of Bangladesh. It was written — ironically — to protest the Partition of Bengal along communal lines: cutting off the Muslim-majority East Bengal from Hindu-dominated West Bengal was to avert a regional bloodbath. Tagore saw the partition as a cunning plan to stop the independence movement , and he aimed to rekindle Bengali unity and tar communalism.
Jana Gana Mana was written in shadhu-bhasha , a Sanskritised register of Bengali, and is the first of five stanzas of a Brahmo hymn Bharot Bhagyo Bidhata that Tagore composed. It was first sung in at a Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress and was adopted in by the Constituent Assembly of the Republic of India as its national anthem. Tagore thus became the only person ever to have written the national anthems of two nations.
The Sri Lanka's National Anthem was inspired by his work. For Bengalis, the songs' appeal, stemming from the combination of emotive strength and beauty described as surpassing even Tagore's poetry, was such that the Modern Review observed that "[t]here is in Bengal no cultured home where Rabindranath's songs are not sung or at least attempted to be sung Even illiterate villagers sing his songs". Fox Strangways of The Observer introduced non-Bengalis to rabindrasangit in The Music of Hindostan , calling it a "vehicle of a personality The poet gave voice to all—big or small, rich or poor.
The works of Rabindranath Tagore consist of poems, novels, short stories, dramas, paintings, drawings, and music that Bengali poet and Brahmo philosopher Rabindranath Tagore created over his lifetime. Tagore's literary reputation is disproportionately influenced very much by regard for his poetry; however, he also wrote novels, essays, short stories, travelogues, dramas, and thousands of songs. Of Tagore's prose, his short stories are perhaps most highly regarded; indeed, he is credited with originating the Bengali-language version of the genre. His works are frequently noted for their rhythmic, optimistic, and lyrical nature.
Sanchayita by Rabindranath Tagore