The book received positive reviews following the appearance of its English translation in Lyotard discusses the philosopher Immanuel Kant's Critique of Judgment , focusing on Kant's description of the sublime. Nuyen in Philosophy of the Social Sciences. Peter Fenves praised Lyotard for posing the "question of the subject of aesthetic judgment" with "renewed vigor". Schrift suggested that Lessons on the Analytic of the Sublime is Lyotard's most important work since The Differend From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Anthony David Blinn College plato hotmail. Lyotard's reading of the Kantian sublime as presented in Lessons on the Analytic of the Sublime and in "Answering the Question: What is Postmodernism" Lessons articulates the context in which critical thought situates itself as a zone of virtually infinite creative capacity, undetermined by principles but in search of them; "Answering the Question" explores how the virtually infinite creative capacity of thought manifests in the avant-gardes.
Essentially, in both works Lyotard understands the Kantian sublime as legitimating deconstructive postmodernism. In the Critique of Judgement Kant defines the sublime as "that, the mere ability to think which shows a faculty of the mind surpassing every standard of sense.
Lyotard's reading of the Kantian sublime. There are lessons to be learned here, as the title of his recent work , Lessons on the Analytic of the Sublime, suggests. Essentially, the heuristic function of the sublime is to expose reflective judgment of which sublime feeling is a species as the context in which the critical enterprise functions or as the "manner" in which critical thought situates its own a priori conditions.
The method behind the madness of the avant-gardes, Lyotard contends, is incomprehensible unless one is already familiar with "the incommensurability of reality to concept which is implied in the Kantian philosophy of the sublime.
Lyotard describes the incommensurability of imagination and reason as a "differend" which is "to be found at the heart of sublime feeling: at the encounter of the two 'absolutes' equally 'present' to thought, the absolute whole when it conceives, the absolutely measured when it presents. Imagination speaks a language of forms, of measures; reason speaks a language of the without-form, of infinitude.
The differend between them is irresolvable: "This conflict is not an ordinary dispute, which a third instance could grasp and put an end to, but a 'differend'. Sublime feeling becomes, as a result, "the transport that leads all thought critical thought included to its limits.
For in critical philosophy the very possibility of philosophy bears the name of reflection. The reader of Kant cannot fail to wonder how the critical thinker could ever establish conditions of thought that are a priori. With what instruments can he formulate the conditions of legitimacy of judgments when he is not yet supposed to have any at his disposal? How, in short, can he judge properly 'before' knowing what judging properly is, and in order to know what it might be?
Somehow the critical thinker must formulate the proper conditions of judgment "before" he has the right to make use of them in validating those very same conditions. Added to this justification paradox is the inability of the understanding to conceive of its own constitutive limiting principles in the first place.
In much the same way that teeth cannot bite themselves, conceptual thought is blind to its own limitations or a prioris: "It is the limit itself that understanding cannot conceive of as its object. The limit is not an object for understanding.
It is its method. In the first place, reflective judgment is pre-conceptual and brings with it not method but manner, a kind of "pre-transcendental logic" which situates the critical faculties.
The "movement" in sublime feeling, from pain to pleasure, is particularly evocative of the manner of critical thought. Lyotard points out that its project is to stake out the territories of the true, the just, and the beautiful-"The project seems modest and reasonable. However, it is motivated by the same principle of fury that the critique restrains.
But it is nevertheless intrigued by the nothingness beyond such limitations:. Imagination at the limits of what it can present does violence to itself in order to present that it can no longer present. Reason, for its part, seeks, unreasonably, to violate the interdict it imposes on itself and which is strictly critical, the interdict that prohibits it from finding objects corresponding to its concepts in sensible intuition.
In these two aspects, thinking defies its own finitude, as if fascinated by its own excessiveness. Thus critical thought is ensnarled in what Lyotard calls its "neurosis" or "masochism", 18 its "spasmotic state. Kant sees a "negative aesthetic" in sublime feeling, one in which nature "does violence to the imagination" and so contradicts the fitness or propriety that nature has for our powers of judgment in experience of the beautiful.
In sublime feeling, nature no longer 'speaks' to thought in the 'coded writing' of its forms. Above and beyond the formal qualities that induced the quality of taste, thinking grasped by the sublime feeling is faced, 'in' nature, with quantities capable only of suggesting a magnitude or force that exceeds its power of presentation. This powerlessness makes thinking deaf or blind to natural beauty.
Lyotard goes on to say that in sublime feeling "thinking becomes impatient, despairing, disinterested in attaining the ends of freedom by means of nature.
The "momentary checking of the vital forces" yields to a "stronger outflow of them" in the pursuit of the absolute:. Limitations, forms, schemas, rules of concepts, illegitimacies, illusions that the critique constantly opposes to this power make no sense if one does not first accept the presupposition of Kantian thought-which is no secret-that 'there is thought,' and this is absolute.
This is what the 'voice of reason' says in sublime feeling, and this is what is truly exalting. In sublime feeling thought recovers what in Zen circles is called "beginner's mind"-an infinite inventive capacity undetermined by principles but in search of them. In turn invention is felt by thought as incredibly joyful, as homecoming. Thus Lyotard speaks of Kant's Analytic of the Sublime in general as "finding its 'legitimacy' in a principle that is expounded by critical thought and that motivates it: a principle of thinking's getting carried away.
Lyotard articulates the connection between the avant-gardes in the arts and the sublime in "Answering the Question: What is Postmodernism," where he states that "it is in the aesthetic of the sublime that In so far as a work of art resists or confounds sense-perception and thus enables reason to become the primary means of enjoyment, it borrows from the aesthetic of the sublime.
In this, says Lyotard, Kant himself shows the way when he names 'formlessness, the absence of form,' as a possible index to the unpresentable He cites the commandment, 'Thou shalt not make graven images' Exodus , as the most sublime passage in the Bible, in that it forbids all presentation of the absolute. Little needs to be added to those observations to outline an aesthetic of sublime paintings.
Painting, then, will avoid representation: "It will be 'white' like one of Malevitch's squares; it will enable us to see only by making it impossible to see. But Lyotard points out that there are modes of sublimity in art, different ways of emphasizing the unpresentable alluded to by means of technique. On the one hand, emphasis is placed on "the powerlessness of the faculty of presentation, on the nostalgia for presence felt by the human subject, on the obscure and futile will which inhabits him in spite of everything.
Regret is the characteristic feeling of the melancholic sublime, and therefore Lyotard considers this mode of sublime sentiment as not the "real" sublime sentiment "which is an intrinsic combination of pleasure and pain.
So, on the other hand, we have the mode of sublimity in art which Lyotard calls "novatio," which places emphasis on "the increase of being and the jubilation which result from the invention of new rules of the game, be it pictorial, artistic, or any other.
The melancholic and novatio modes of the sublime are distinguishable in a related, yet slightly different, way. Both, says Lyotard, allow the unpresentable to be put forward, but it is the recognizable consistency in form of artworks in the melancholic mode that "continues to offer to the reader or viewer matter for solace and pleasure" 34 and thereby reinforces the Romantic nostalgia for Nature or Absolute Spirit.
But genuine sublime sentiment "denies itself the solace of good forms, the consensus of a taste which would make it possible to share collectively the nostalgia for the unattainable.
Lyotard picks up on this connection when he says, A postmodern artist or writer is in the position of the philosopher: the text he writes, the work he produces are not in principle governed by preestablished rules, and they cannot be judged according to a determining judgment, by applying familiar categories to the text or to the work.
Those rules and categories are what the work of art itself is looking for. Avant-garde art, exemplifying the novatio sublime, is the possibility of infinite experiment and development which, by virtue of being infinite, is itself unpresentable. The nature of art, in other words, becomes problematic. Painting, for example, is no longer a mere reflection of the socio-political and religious order of things; rather, it becomes solely a reflexive endeavor to determine what painting is.
Postmodernity, says Lyotard, "cannot exist without a shattering of belief and without discovery of the 'lack of reality' of reality, together with the invention of other realities. The impact of one product of technoscience, photography, is an interesting, if not paradoxical, source of the postmodern sensibility. Images produced mechanically, like photographs, achieve a degree of verisimilitude that outmatches practically anything hand-produced, and for this reason one might conclude that photographs reinforce a sense of stability or reality to cultural forms better than "realist" styles of painting since the quattrocento.
Yet photographs also have the potential for infinite production, and it is this sublime gesture itself which undermines any stability that their "hardness" of imagery might suggest. But after mechanical reproduction, leading to the Mona Lisa's appearance on billboards, magazine advertisements, and T-shirts, unity and stability of meaning are no longer possible.
This is emblematic of what Postmodern culture has both lost and found. It has lost its sense of presence or originating certainty, and it has gained infinity.
Therein lies its sublimity. The aesthetic of the sublime, then, serves as a mediating link between the avant-garde and postmodern culture.
Lyotard also portrays it as the means by which art may find its true destiny in a way similar to how thought finds its destiny in criticism.
The aesthetic of the sublime, first of all, reclaims art from its merely documentary function. Rather than reflect the accepted order of things and dodge what Lyotard calls "the question of reality implicated in that of art," 40 avant-garde art acknowledges and plays with the constructed nature of perception and worldview. The aesthetic of the sublime also recovers art from its more melacholic mode. Rather than emphasize human lostness and yearning for presence employing regular forms that indeed reinforce such nostalgia, avant-garde art delights in constantly challenging received forms: it "flushes out" the "artifices of presentation" which attempt, in bad faith, "to present the unpresentable.
Therein lies its legitimation. We have paid a high enough price for the nostalgia of the whole and the one, for the reconciliation of the concept and the sensible Under the general demand for slackening and for appeasement, we can hear the mutterings of the desire for a return of terror, for the realization of the fantasy to seize reality. The answer is: Let us wage a war on totality Lyotard's strident call for the realization of sublime feeling in the avant-garde is ultimately a preventative against a return, which he deems fatal, to old Enlightenment metanarratives.
In the technology of the atom bomb, in the polished steel of concentration camps, humanity's self-improvement through reason and science somehow and inexplicably culminates in the terroristic dictum, "Be operational or disappear. It must remain open to what will orientate its critical examination: a feeling. Bernard London: Macmillan, , The Idea of absolute greatness has only a regulative or heuristic function, meaning that it is not factually informative but rather guides our investigation of the facts.
Specifically, in the light of transcendental Ideas of absolute greatness scientists act as if it were possible, though they do not know this for certain, to unify knowledge in terms of a single principle-"Grand Unified Theory," if you will. See Frederick Copleston, Vol. It may also take the form of might, which Kant memorably dramatizes as follows: "Bold, overhanging, and as it were threatening, rocks; clouds piled up in the sky, moving with lightning flashes and thunder peals; volcanoes in all their violence of destruction; hurricanes with their track of devastation; the boundless ocean in a state of tumult; the lofty waterfall of a mighty river, and such like; these exhibit our faculty of resistance as insignificantly small in comparison with their might.
But the sight of them is the more attractive, the more fearful it is, provided only that we are in security. Kant's message here is reminiscent of Pascal's: "Man is only a reed, the weakest thing in nature, but he is a thinking reed Warrington Dent: London, , Lyotard, Lessons on the Analytic of the Sublime, trans. Lyotard, "Answering the Question: What is Postmodernism? However, Paul Crowther notes that "this, interestingly, is not a wholly arbitrary usage, in so far as the term 'avant-garde' seems to have been first used, in relation to the arts, in the 's.
Paideia logo design by Janet L. All Rights Reserved. Critical Thought Lyotard describes the incommensurability of imagination and reason as a "differend" which is "to be found at the heart of sublime feeling: at the encounter of the two 'absolutes' equally 'present' to thought, the absolute whole when it conceives, the absolutely measured when it presents. But it is nevertheless intrigued by the nothingness beyond such limitations: [S]ublime feeling is analyzed as double defiance.
The "momentary checking of the vital forces" yields to a "stronger outflow of them" in the pursuit of the absolute: [I]t is because thought recognizes in [the sublime] the truth of what it is in itself 'before' it was opposed by givens that had to be grasped by forms of sensibility, assembled in schemas, known by concepts, or estimated according to the good The Avant-Garde Lyotard articulates the connection between the avant-gardes in the arts and the sublime in "Answering the Question: What is Postmodernism," where he states that "it is in the aesthetic of the sublime that Conclusion We have paid a high enough price for the nostalgia of the whole and the one, for the reconciliation of the concept and the sensible
Lessons on the Analytic of the Sublime
Philosophical aesthetics has seen an amazing revival over the past decade, as a radical questioning of the very grounds of Western epistemology has revealed that some antinomies of aesthetic experience—and in particular of the limits of the aesthetical—can be viewed as a general, yet necessarily open model for human understanding. In this revival, no text in the classical corpus of Western philosophy has been more frequently discussed than the complex paragraphs modestly inserted into Kant's Critique of Judgment as sections the Analytic of the Sublime. This book is a rigorous explication de texte , a close reading of these sections. First, Lyotard reconstitutes, following the letter of Kant's analysis, the philosophical context of his critical writings and of the European Enlightenment.
Philosophical aesthetics has seen an amazing revival over the past decade, as a radical questioning of the very grounds of Western epistemology has revealed that some antinomies of aesthetic experience and in particular of the limits of the aesthetical can be viewed as a general, yet necessarily open model for human understanding. In this revival, no text in the classical corpus of Western philosophy has been more frequently discussed than the complex paragraphs modestly inserted into Kant's Critique of Judgment as sections the Analytic of the Sublime. This book is a rigorous explication de texte , a close reading of these sections. First, Lyotard reconstitutes, following the letter of Kant's analysis, the philosophical context of his critical writings and of the European Enlightenment. Second, because the analytic of the sublime reveals the inability of aesthetic experience to bridge the separate realms of theoretical and practical reason, Lyotard can connect his reconstitution of Kant's critical project with today's debates about the very conditions and limits of presentation in general.
Anthony David Blinn College plato hotmail. Lyotard's reading of the Kantian sublime as presented in Lessons on the Analytic of the Sublime and in "Answering the Question: What is Postmodernism" Lessons articulates the context in which critical thought situates itself as a zone of virtually infinite creative capacity, undetermined by principles but in search of them; "Answering the Question" explores how the virtually infinite creative capacity of thought manifests in the avant-gardes. Essentially, in both works Lyotard understands the Kantian sublime as legitimating deconstructive postmodernism. In the Critique of Judgement Kant defines the sublime as "that, the mere ability to think which shows a faculty of the mind surpassing every standard of sense.